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What Were The Agreements That Both Presidents Made To Prevent Another War

15 Oct Posted by in Uncategorized | Comments
What Were The Agreements That Both Presidents Made To Prevent Another War

I spoke at length about the provisions of the new arbitration agreement with France. I also highlighted the scope and purpose of the many mediation agreements that the United States has entered into with other governments. I know of only one other form of treaty that can be concluded with the aim of avoiding war, and that is a treaty in which the parties expressly undertake not to resort to war. This is the kind of treaty that people think of when discussing treaties to prohibit war, and it is a new idea in modern international relations. The end of the war marked the end of the Grand Alliance. Roosevelt died in April 1945 and was replaced by his Vice President Harry S. Truman, a staunch anti-communist. Churchill met briefly with Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, but was replaced halfway by a newly elected prime minister, Clement Attlee. Ongoing disputes between the Soviets and democratic allies over the organization of the post-war world eventually killed the alliance. Stalin continued to expand Soviet influence in Eastern Europe, while America and Britain were determined to stop it without provoking another war.

This tense stalemate between the former Allies, known as the Cold War, lasted for decades. I therefore sincerely hope that the ongoing negotiations, aimed at concluding a comprehensive multilateral treaty against war, will ultimately lead to success, and I have no doubt that if the major Powers of the world are united in the sincere desire to conclude such a treaty, a formula acceptable to all of them can be developed. However, since the goal of the United States is, to the extent possible, to eliminate war as a factor in international relations, I cannot insist that it will not become a party to an agreement that is, directly or indirectly, explicitly or implicitly a military alliance. The United States cannot commit in advance to using its armed forces against all other nations in the world. It does not believe that the peace of the world or of Europe depends or can be ensured by treaties of the military alliance. The futility of such guarantors of peace is demonstrated again and again on the pages of history. In his first year in office, Nixon had attempted to settle the war on favorable terms. Through secret negotiations between Kissinger and the North Vietnamese, the president warned that if by 1. November 1969 no great progress will be made, “we will be forced – with great reluctance – to take measures with the greatest consequences”.

NSC personnel made plans for some of these options, including resuming bombing north Vietnam and dismantling the port of Haiphong. Nixon then took a step that would both disrupt communist supply and signal a willingness to act irrationally to achieve his goals – he secretly ordered the bombing of communist supply lines on the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Cambodia. Moreover, in keeping with his intention to convey a sense of presidential irrationality – Nixon as a “madman” – he issued a global nuclear warning. President Kennedy chose Averell Harriman, an experienced diplomat known and respected by Khrushchev, to resume negotiations in Moscow. .


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